Medical Education in Russia

Medical education in Russia usually lasts 6 years for an undergraduate MD or MBBS. The curriculum for the first two years is the same at all Faculties. It includes preclinical and fundamental medical sciences that are the essential basis for any medical specialty. Medical specialization starts at the third year of studies; the curriculum includes propedeutics, biochemistry and pathology (pathological anatomy and pathological physiology) clinical and special subjects, depending on the orientation.

The principal feature of medical education in Russia for both the Faculties of curative medicine and pediatrics is the introduction of a new approach to the training of internists and pediatricians that implies a two-year continuing primary specialization, one year while at the institution and the other year after graduation. The nature of medical education in russia and its curriculum at these Faculties is designed to cover all the general medical education within five years.

During the third, fourth, and fifth years, students perform clinical work as nurses, feldshers, and clinical assistants. In the sixth year, medical students take their primary specialization in one of the following clinical subjects: Faculty of Curative Medicine (surgery, obstetrics, and gynecology) of Faculty of Pediatrics (pediatrics, including child infectious diseases, and pediatric surgery, including orthopedics). Sub specialization in clinical areas is not an option during the undergraduate program, as profound knowledge of the main clinical subjects is believed to be fundamental for adequate training of doctors.

After 6 years of medical education in Russia, students pass a state examination according to the curriculum, obtain a Doctor’s Diploma, and complete a one year internship in medical units under the supervision of specialists. Instruction in ophthalmology, otolaryngology, dietology, climatotherapy, endocrinology, clinical biochemistry, physiotherapy, and such aspects of surgery as oncology and neurosurgery is provided by the appropriate departments.

The instructional methodology in Russian medical schools includes lectures by the leading specialists and regular practical classes throughout the course of studies.

Training programs at medical schools in Russia are adjusted to the needs of population in accordance with health priorities. Thus, when in the 1950s the non-communicable diseases became a real health problem; these subjects were strengthened and introduced more widely into curricula. When the role of primary health care became more evident in the 1970s, medical education in Russia became adapted to this target-problem.

In Russian medical schools following the annual examinations at the end of the fourth and fifth years, senior students of all Faculties usually spend the breaks between semesters in professional training. Students are taught to use their knowledge, develop their professional skills, master up-to-date methods of diagnostics and treatment, and become familiar with all other work they will do in the future. It should be emphasized that at least 25 percent of the time within the training program of all specialties is devoted to practice at the primary health care level.

Finally after completion of medical education in Russia, students must pass state examinations in general and special medical subjects (depending on the orientation of a particular Faculty) to receive a diploma as physician of general medicine at the Faculty of Curative Medicine (VRAC), as pediatrician at the Faculty of Pediatrics, as sanitary officer at the Faculty of Hygiene, as stomatologist at the Faculty of Stomatology, or as pharmacist at the pharmaceutical institution or faculty.

Annually, about 60,000 students graduate from Russian medical schools. – Professor Felix Vartanian, MD Vice-rector of Russian Academy for Advanced Medical Studies December 2008

Innovation Will Overcome Recession – Is Your IP Department Prepared?

There is a lot of negative press about the economy. Too much. In addition to not reading the statements from my investment accounts, I may soon have to give up reading the news as well. Enough with the doom & gloom. It is time to look forward to, prepare for, and take action to bring about a prosperous future. Regardless of your political affiliation, you have to admire the quote from a radio talk show host here in the U.S. It went something like this: “I refuse to participate in this recession.” While financial reality for many of us is likely different than they are for a multi-millionaire, nationally syndicated radio talk show host, I admire the sentiment.

The Glass is Half-Full

There is a great article from the Washington Post entitled: 5 Myths About Our Sputtering Economy. It reads: “For months now, the nation’s economic obituary has been splashed across the front pages of nearly every newspaper in the country. Journalists and pundits alike have warned that America’s long-running global dominance has come to a screeching halt, eclipsed by growing markets in such places as China and India and frittered away by our own mismanagement, excesses and myopic approach to the future. We’re long past due for a reality check. The United States and the incoming Obama administration face formidable challenges, but the country is by no means on its last legs.”

Further, it is not as though we’re all idly standing by waiting for the next piece of the economic sky to fall. There are stimulus packages already in place and even more on the way to help jump start the economy. There is an interesting piece in BusinessWeek called “The Innovation Economy.” It describes how the incoming administration should build the innovation economy by focusing on entrepreneurship, innovation, and creativity.

The Obama Administration should ignite new company formation as the vehicle to create tens of millions of new jobs. These new businesses should take on the nation’s greatest challenges in renewable energy and the environment, health care, education, transportation, and global peace.”

The Europeans Aren’t Standing Still

While those of us in the U.S. wait for the new administration to take office, the European Union isn’t waiting around to see what the U.S. does to recover. The European Commission is proposing a coordinated response to the EU’s deepening economic crisis. The Commission is proposing EUR200bn in measures to boost purchasing power and generate growth and jobs. The Europeans are seizing this as an opportunity to shore up their innovation infrastructure and global competitiveness in a knowledge economy. “By jump-starting the economy with investment in infrastructure, green technology, energy efficiency and innovation, the package aims to accelerate the transition to a knowledge-based, low-carbon society. It encourages more partnerships between government and business.”

Several EU countries (including the UK, France and Germany) have already announced their own stimulus packages. The commission is now calling on all nations to follow suit, under an umbrella of European coordination. Governments would spend this money in the way best suited to their own economy as different countries face different challenges. Similar economic stimulus packages are being considered or implemented in most developed nations around the world.

This Too Shall Pass

The stimulus packages in the U.S., the European Union and in other countries just may provide the elusive economic catalyst we are all hoping will kick in soon. There is a great piece at Forbes.com that describes how this is likely to happen — how we will collectively make it happen.

 

“As long as human beings attempt to better themselves and improve standards of living, and as long as policymakers don’t compound problems, the natural course of growth will return.”

And for the IP Professionals

And finally, a topic that hits a little closer to home for most readers. According to Tryon Stading’s research: US patent filing and IP litigation markets have experienced significant growth during recessions. The flip side of this increase is that companies may be facing increasing litigation costs as they defend their products and market positions. Either way, IP professionals have a good chance of being kept busy through the recession and subsequent recovery!

So What Are You Doing About it?

The recession will not last. The innovative spirit of people everywhere will eventually lead us to the next profitable market cycle. Where there is innovation there is IP. Now is a good time to look within your company to determine what you can do today to be better positioned in the future. Are you still capturing all of the new patentable ideas within you company, or are you cutting back in that area? Are you cutting back on patent filings? What are you doing to ensure you are filing the most business-critical patents? Are you trying to offset costs by licensing non-core patents? Although your corporate budgeting process may not agree with this sentiment, now is not the time to be haphazardly trimming expenses around your IP portfolio. Now is the time to be smart with your IP, and to tightly align it with the growth strategies of your business.

An Insight Into the Different Sectors of the Healthcare Industry

Health has always been one of the major factors determining the growth magnitudes of the economy of any country. The margin between a developing and a developed country is often drawn based on the progress in the fields of healthcare. A strong healthcare sector refers to a lower death rate and a higher level of life expectancy, which largely influences the growth and development of any economy. Hence, it is critical that a country takes good care of its healthcare sector to cater to its populace in an effective manner and to contribute to the country’s growth index in a positive way.

As far as India is concerned, it has one of the largest and most diverse population frame comprising of individuals belonging to different social and economic conditions. To cater to the multiple needs arising out of the diverse living conditions in India, we have a healthcare sector that upholds a bunch of services ensuring good health and effective prevention. Though if we segregate the sector based on its functioning, you will find a lot of distinct sectors attached to the main industry. However, if we take a brief insight into the broad categories that serve as the backbone to the industry, we would have four major domains as described in the article below.

Hospital Services and Facilities

Hospitals are the primary lifeline of the health sector and the core of the health industry. Comprising of general medical hospitals, surgical hospitals, substance abuse and psychiatric hospitals, specialty hospitals, hospices and palliative care centers, family planning and abortion clinics, emergency and other outpatient care centers, dental laboratories, blood and organ banks, sleep disorder clinics, and more, hospitals form a long chain that binds the entire landscape together in terms of serving health to the people. There are residential and nursing care facilities available as well. Nursing, supervisory, residential care are some of the services that are available through this vertical. The other facilities extended through the hospital services are Urgent Care Centers, In-Home Senior Care, Mental Health and Residential Developmental Handicap Facilities, Community Care for the elderly, and so on. Besides, since it is critical that patients receive ambulance services in time, there are direct and indirect services available for ambulatory patients as well. The outpatient care centers, diagnostic centers, hospitals, and some private players in the field also provide this facility to guarantee uninterrupted health service.

Healthcare Equipment and Diagnostic Tools

The present-day advancement in science and technology has rendered the healthcare industry with some of the most innovative and effective equipment and processes to diagnose and treat the ailments as critical as cellular malignancy. There are multiple companies who cater to the rising demand of this equipment. In-Vitro diagnostic substances, ophthalmic goods, surgical appliances and supplies, Mammography Machine, Robotic Surgery Equipment, Venous Access Device, and Glucose Meter are some of the examples that help the healthcare professionals in treating and detecting the diseases in a streamlined manner. To manufacture and supply these, there is a huge industry involved that ensures smooth operations and timely delivery of the equipment and tools.

Medical/Health Insurance

Apart from the direct health care industry, there are services attached to it that render value to its being. Medical insurance and other organizations that back up the entire process of operations for the healthcare industry have a major impact on the existence and growth of this industry. With active participation and spontaneous service, medical insurance has become primary support for the majority of the treatments that involve considerable expenses. With facilities like TPA and cashless treatments, the patients can now enjoy a hassle-free treatment at best-facilitated hospitals.

Pharmaceuticals Sector

The pharmaceutical industry manufactures, markets, and innovates licensed drugs that are effective and integral for better healthcare facilities. This is a huge sector employing a large percentage of population to cater to the market requirements. From drug wholesalers to over the counter stores, the pharmaceutical industry is a major player in this domain. With the rise in the health consciousness in the general public, nutritional supplements have also taken a major share of the healthcare industry, which are again the products of the pharmaceutical sector only.

As the days have walked into modern times, the increasing level of dependency on technology along with the rising pollution levels have worked to make the diseases even more complicated and varied. Hence, it is imperative that there exists an equally strong healthcare sector guiding the mass to cure. With government interventions and private sector initiatives, the number of hospitals has increased over the years catering to a larger crowd. The other sectors like pharma, insurance, and medical equipment have also grown in parallel to support this emerging sector in every possible way. Covering a large landscape encompassing villages as well as the urban corners of the country, the healthcare sector promises high to keep up with the upcoming challenges and demands of the time.